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BALIKATAN Program

Tuesday, January 5, 2010

THE PARUAO DEFENSE LINE 1899

THE PARUAO DEFENSE LINE 1899:
THE LAST BATTLE OF THE REPUBLIC


By Rhonie C. Dela Cruz

“And in the murky damps of old Luzon,
They build camp fires all the way
From Caloocan to Bamban, and back and on!
Across the mountain trails unto the sea!”
Col R. Stevens, USA 1903

BAMBAN AS CITADEL OF POWER

It was May 20, 1899. At Bamban, General Francisco Macabulos, commanding operations for Tarlac and Pangasinan provinces with his headquarters in the town issued a decree setting policies on the surrendering of captured arms and ammunitions taken from the Americans. Macabulos Brigade’s presence in Bamban was in conjunction with Gen. Antonio Luna’s plan for the fortification of the defense line along the Paruao River channel. Running along the Pampanga-Tarlac border, the areas include Bamban, its mountain region from the west and southwest to the east of Mt. Arayat including the Angeles-Magalang line, and Concepcion, Tarlac.

At the time, the Americans were already crushing the doors of San Fernando, Pampanga after the defeat of the Filipino forces at Santo Tomas from which Gen. Luna was mortally wounded. General Luna, commanding the Revolutionary Army, perceived the strategic importance of Bamban, its hills and mountains to the rear and the riverbanks of the Paruao River as main line into the last stronghold to protect Aguinaldo’s seat of government in Tarlac.



On May 12, 1899, he moved further north and established his headquarters in Bayambang, Pangasinan. He relinquished the Paruao Defense Line command to Brigadier General Venancio Concepcion, an illustrado from Ilo-Ilo to continue the fortifications of the area with Bamban as one of his headquarters. General Concepcion’s division consisted the brigades of Generals Franciso Macabulos, Maximino Hizon, Tomas Mascardo, and Luciano San Miguel. The month of May and the entry of June, 1899 come the firestorm of the Filipino-American war in Central Luzon. At the same time, there was a heightening tension and controversies between Luna and Aguinaldo. On June 5, 1899, while Gen. Aguinaldo was on the way to Bamban, Gen. Concepcion received a telegram informing the he (Aguinaldo) is taking charge of operations in Central Luzon while on the same day, Gen. Luna was being murdered at the convento of Cabanatuan. On June 6, 1899, Gen. Aguinaldo issued the official declaration of the changes in command of the military operations and the transfer of his headquarters, the capital of the Philippine Republic to the town of Bamban.Gen. Aguinaldo stayed in the Bamban headquarters from June 6 to June 21, 1899. From thence, he moved the seat of government to the Tarlac, Tarlac

THE “BATIAWAN” & THE PARUAO
During the Filipino-American War, the American soldiers coined the term “boondocks”; derived from the Tagalog word bundok, meaning mountain. The term became part of the American vocabulary by the soldier-volunteers and cavalries. The mountainous terrain offered refuge and strategic advantage to the Army of the Republic as base of resistance. The mountains of Bamban rise sharply forming a series of parallel ridges oriented northeast to southwest and separated by Bamban River and its tributaries. About a mile and a half west of Mabalacat comes the steep nose of Lafe Hill. A mile south of Bamban, Sapang Mabanglo comes in from the west to join the Paruao River, which was the old name for the Bamban River. These hills were called Ligaya Mountains during the late 1890’s.

According to Aetas, Paruao means going downward, hence, from the source deep into mountainous Sacobia, the river goes downward into the plains of Tarlac-Pampanga border. Under the cliff like sharp ridge of Ligaya Mountain, the Bamban River turns ninety degrees to the east; passing the view of Yba Hill (also known as Dona Africa) and the Banaba Hill (also known as Bunduk-bundukan)of what is now the small hill in San Pedro who used to be a part of the barrio Banaba.

Paruao River reaches parts of Concepcion and Magalang and ultimately feeding into the Pampanga River. The Bantiti Hills and the ridges north-south stretch of the Bamban River rise steeply to a height of 600 feet. From these strategic hills, the Army of the Republic can check the advancing American force. The terrain and topographical features of Bamban supported Gen. Aguinaldo’s fortification plans along the river line and the defense system of Bamban Hills. Elders of Bamban tell stories of outposts on the ridges of Bamban Hills which was said to be occupied by elements of Generals Servillano Aquino and Francisco Makabulos occupied observatio posts and watchtowers called “Batiawan”.

The Bamban Railroad Bridge
Just east of the river bend south of Bamban, the bridge of the Manila-Dagupan rail line pass through which was opened to traffic on November 1892. The Bamban Railroad bridge was about thirty feet high, and contained four seventy-foot spans. The bridge piers were metal tubes filled with concrete. It was constructed of imported materials by English engineers with European foremen on supervisions and native labors for construction. Brick masonry was utilized for bridge abutments and English lattice designs was used. Concrete piers at the ends of the bridge were reinforced with stone masonry revetments around their fonts and sides and used as abutments.

THE PARUAO DEFENSE LINE
With the death of Gen. Luna, Gen. Aguinaldo promoted Luciano San Miguel with headquarters in Angeles City to Brigadier General and was ordered to command the Paruao Defense Line. On June 16, the Americans were defending San Fernando from the attack of Filipino forces commanded personally by Gen. Aguinaldo himself with the brigades of generals Macabulos, San Miguel, and Mascardo; just ten days after he reached Bamban and made it his capital. After the battle to retake San Fernando, the American Expeditionary Force was in lull of fighting due to the rainy weather. While the headquarters of Gen. Aguinaldo was located in Tarlac, he was also preoccupied with the defense and fortifications of Paruao River Line, which he planned to check the advance of the Americans.

Entrenchments & Fortifications
The Paruao River Line was Aguinaldo’s personal project and he did a lot of improvements based on his experiences in battles. He organized his men to begin the construction as soon as Gen. Luna’s Bag bag river line succumb to American force. Aside from entrenchments, bamboo palisades were constructed hoping to make Americans bleed through them. The following is a description of the fortification of the Paruao River Line:

Explanation
The constructed purely bamboo barricade is to check the fast advance of the enemy the first line is 100 meters form the trenches from there to the second barricade is 50 meters. The chiefs stationed in the trenches will not fire until after the enemies had reached the third or rather the outpost. The said barricade was approved by the revolutionary leaders in Tenajeros: that they would not attack the enemy in three advances without first seeking another place for refuge, especially when they are formed in three ranks similar to this structure

(Signed) E. Aguinaldo 13 October 1899


From the original concept of Gen. Luna, to the pesonal supervision by Gen. Aguinaldo, the extent of the Paruao River Line covers even the north banks of the Abacan River (in Angeles), and the strong points posted at Sapang Bato forming the right sector of the Paruao. The left sector constituted the areas left of the railroad tracks coming from Angeles to Bamban. The line protected by the river was in fine condition with defense positions in the mountians of Yba, Banaba and Ligaya including artillery assigned units. It was also laid down in the plan in case of Anerican attack on the line, the cannons forming the artillery positions be tkane to the railroad, put on the cars for tctical withdrawal. The brigade of Gen. Luciano San Miguel would be withdrawn to Bamban, to position some of the troops to the Paruao and the remainder be set-up at a retreat-line in Cut-Cut River in Capas where they could connect on the left with te Aquino Brigade. After the death of Gen. Luna on June 5, 1899, Gen. Concepcion was relieved of the command of the Paruao Line and was replaced by Gen. San Miguel. By late August 1899, Gen. Aquinaldo ordered Gen. Concpecion back to the front and named him “chief-of-operations” of the Paruao Line in Bamban.

Reports of Lt. Col. Jose Genova:
It was the 20th of August 1899 at Bamban, Lt. Col. Jose Genova, one of the field officer of the Paruao Line, sent a report to the Secretary of War, Baldomero Aguinaldo at Aguinaldo’s headquarters in Tarlac. The following, based on Taylor’s Philippine Insurgent Records, described the planning and defense of the riverline:

“Mt. Iba, on the other side of the river Paruao, opposite Banaba hill, overlooks our fortifications and the said hill; mountans Yba and Ligaya command all our positions, therefore it is of the utmost consequence that they should be under our control, to avoid being naked with shot. Upon abandoning them, it would be necessary to desteoy all the intrenchmens. For this event protected roads have been prepared through which our artillery can retreat with relative comfort and without danger. The ehemy can pass only by way of the railroad, commanded in fornt for a space of two kilometers by our artillery, and by left flank from Ligaya, as alreadty stated; and by the highroad, a road under protection of our guns, slightly parallel to the railroad and which terminates at the river in a natural parapet. This road can only be attacked from the hill of Yba.” Col. Genova proposed the positioning of a couple of flying sections commanded by officers familiar with the terrain on the left flank (southwest of Bamban) and check the entry of the American forces coming in from Porac via Sapangbato area including that of the area covered what is now the Clark Field. The posting of flying sections on the left flank, as suggested by Genova, should not lose connection with the troops which were posted on Mt. Ligaya.

On the right flank, which was the main front, there were fortifications bordered by Ligaya mountain and Yba hill. According to the plan, infantry should be posted on these areas. These lines should be maintained by infantry defenses. In case of withdrawal, a system has been devised to give signal so that artillery from te mountains of Ligaya, Yba, and Banaba be pulled-out and infantry to provide firepower to cover the retreat.



Col. Genova may have studied the terrain of the Paruao riverline and the strategic importance of Bamban Hills. As part of the planning of the defense of the Republic at Tarlac, he narrated, “The line of the river Cut-cut (in Capas), constituting te second line of defense form the moutnains of Bamban and Capas, could protect our retreat.” He recommended a strong force of Filipno troops between Magalang and Concepcion since the area along which the Paruao traverse was sandy and unprotected. There were also some troops at Arayat which could distract some of the American fire. A battalion of infantry is also posted for the sole objective of protecting and defendeing the artillery posted on the Paruao river line.

Reports of Gen. Venancio Concepcion
General Venancio Concepcion, the General in the defense of the Paruao River, would not hesitate to used all its available forces consisting the brigades of Genrals Mascardo, San Miguel, Hizon, and Aquino to block the passage of the Americans. In August 22, 1899, Gen. Concepcion, in his telegaphic transmittal to Gen. Aguinaldo, gave tactical information on the Paruao River Line:

“The batteris on the river Paruao have been visited by me; I have seen the ten pieces (artillery) placed in them as agreed upon by you, and to meet the necessities for developing yourplan, I have ordered left here one canon of 7-cm. in the batttery which overlooks the orad giving access to this section, and two pieces of artillery (a Maxim and Nordenfeld) on Mount Banaba, opposite te Iba Hill, to command the road which leads to the latter.” There were some artillery pieces left to be transferred to the barrio of San Antonio in Magalang where the Americans are also expected to move-in. The town of Mabalcat, according to Gen. Cocncepcion, will be left with some detached guerillas to annoy the entry of the American forces and provide reconnaisance and intelligence thereof. He was in contact with Generals San Miguel and Aquino for whom the town of Bamban and Concepcion were put into respective commands. Gen. Aguinaldo, at his headquarters in Tarlac, was completely in contact with Gen. Cocnepcion with repsect to the planning of defense and implementation of his original plans that was pesonnaly supervise in June. Accordingly, Gen. Concpecion followed strictly of the Captain-General’s instructions as “the spikes ordered by you tobe scatterd along the road are already made; concelaed traps will be made at suitable points, and if you could order some dynamite, I would contruct mines at intervals between the entrenchments so as to blow them up.”

On Septemebr 11, 1899, Gen. Panteleon Garcia from the Office of Gen. Aguinaldo, sent communication to Gen. Concepcion regarding the latters’ concurrence of the establihsment of system of entrenches on the footshills of Yba and Ligaya for defense and cover the railroad and wagon road of Mabalacat within firing range. It was also advised to Gen. Cocnecpion that white flags should be planted on the frotifications along the Paruao river, where the soldiers shold not open fire intil the esact moment when enemy corses the river.

By September 12, 1899, Gen. Conception, in a telegraphic reply to Gen. Aguonaldo, described the Bamban railroad bridge traversing over the Paruao River which was made of iron and that to burn it or completely knock it down to make ti unusable for the Americans requires the use of dynamite. The force at the briudge at the time consisted of 24 rifles with the companies under the command of Geneeral San Migeul.

On September 28, 1899, there was an exchange of telegraphic messages between Gen. Aguinaldo and Gen. concpecion in Bamban regarding the Kawit (Cauit) Battalion attached to the San Miguel Brigade to be posted on the right and front (railway) sector of the Paruao to “attract the enemy and collect themin forn of Paurao bridge” for an ultimate ambush.

Rifles and Cannons
Filipino foot soldiers were usually armed with German-made Mauser and Remington rifles while the Americans used the Krag-Jorgensen, or "Krag" rifle; a smokeless powder, small caliber, repeating rifle adopted by the United States government. The Krag, chambered for a 30-40 caliber round and produced at the Springfield Armory, saw duty as the American military’s main-battle-rifle from 1894 to 1907. At the Paruao Line, Filipino entrenchments and fortifications were armed with Maxim Nordenfeld 37mm artillery with an accuracy of 3,000 yards. American volunteer units at the time may have been using the standard Gatling gun rapid fire cannons and Hotchkiss artillery pieces.

Unfinished Defenses of Paruao and Bamban Hills

With all the strategic and military importance of the planning and fortificatons of the Paruao Defense Line, its purpose is to delay the Ameircans from further advance into Tarlac and give enogh time for the army to prepare for guerilla warfare and to evacuate the artillery pieces from Bamban to the Zambales areas. In fact, Gen. Jose Alejandrino (from the nearby town of Arayat Pampanga) was later tasked to command the transfer of these precious cannons from the Paruao stronghold to the mountains of Zambales. Gen. Aguinaldo already sensed the futility of frontal attack against the Americans with superior weapons in quantity and quality of weapons nad logistics which the only solution suffice the use of guerilla warfare as waged aganst the Spaniards in 1897. The Paruao defense line, in spite of its purpose, may have been such a formidable defense for the Americans too costly to destroy. But at the time, there were conflicts between Generals Cocnepcion and San Miguel, which started out of partisanship between Luna and Aguinaldo. This conflict disrupts the completion of the defenses of the Paruao River lne. Nevertheless, the Ameircan high command already seen the future threat of this river line defense as such as “The Ameircna Army, withing to terminate the Revolution, planed to capture Aguinaldo and his foces before the latter had time to complte the Paurao Line and the defense system of the Bamban Hills.”

THE AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE
MacArthur’s Column
From William T. Sexton’s “ Soldiers in the Philippines”, the American planning and force dispositions for the eventual attack on the defense of the Republic at Paruao riverline can be extracted. While the Philippine Army’s Paruoa Defense Line under Gen. Concepcion was spread on the left, front (the railway), and right sector to cover all possible approaches to Tarlac, it was facing the American Second Division (US Amy Eight Corps) under General Arthur MacArthur. Having its headquarters in Angeles after the fall of San Fernando in August 1899, MacArthur’sdivision consistedthe following:

1st Brigade (Gen. Hale)
3 Battalions, 9th Infantry, 12th Infantry, 1 battery, 3rd Artillery
2nd Brigade (Gen. Wheaton)
17th Infantry (Col. Smith), 51st Iowa Infantry, 22nd Infantry (1 Bn), 1 batery of 1st and 1 battery of 3rd Artillery.

The American high command under Gen. Otis conceived the plan of frontal attack against the Filipino forces whose military backbone was on the railroad, with one brigade on each side of the railroad. The 36th Infantry, under Col. Franklin J. Bell had just finished its duty with heavy battles near Porac. It was organized in the Philippines as a new US volunteer unit created for the Philippine campaign. Col Bell received his Medal of Honor when in Septembe 9, 1899, while commanding his 36th Regiment, able to subdue the surrnder of Filipino infantry with their captain whicle under heavy attack. The 36th Infantry will be taking charge of the attack on the right sector where Sapangbato, the site of the future Stotsenburg and the right sector of Bamban (west, southwest of the town) will be under its zone of attack and occupation.

On the front of the railriad, Brigidier General Joseph Wheeler, known as “Fighitng Joe” for his eagerness to push beyond the limit of military objectives, was in charge of MacArthur’s column. His command included the 9th and 12th Regiments; a battery and a half of field artillery, and a company of engineers. The 12th Regiment had its reputation as the conqueror of Angeles on August 16, 1899.

The 17th Infantry under Col. Jacob Smith was tasked to take charge of the left sector whose zone of attach included the towns of Magaland and Concepcion. The 32nd Infantry was assigned in Amgeles to secure the supply lines. The 32nd during the previous months, had also stiff engagement on several battles in or near Porac.

ON THE ROAD TO BAMBAN
November 5 to 20 is marked in the annals of the history of the Filipino-American War as the “Tarlac Campaign” which is recorded on the American battle operations. This campaign was in fact, the battle of Paruao River Line that was fought on the confluence of the river. Military battles were fought between the Filipino and American forces from Angeles and calumnating with the collapse of the Paruao River Line in Bamban which pavedd the way for the capture of Tarlac on November 12, 1899.

Sapang Bato
From late August to October 1899, MacArthur’s division at Angeles has been taken in supplies and reinforcement in view of the forthcoming military operations to capture Aguinaldo’s government in Tarlac.. Fresh from the Porac campaign, the 36th Infantry under Col. Bell, on November 7,1899, made a reconnaisance entry into Mabalacat and went back to Angeles in the evening. The Filipino forces had withrawn during the night and settled on the positions at Sapang Bato This area now covers the Fort Stotsenburg (Clark Field) artillery range. On November 8, Bell and a reconnaisance group of eighteen men attacked the Filipino contingent at the site where Fort Stotsenburg now existed. The Filipino infantry numbering one hundred were entrenched and fought the 36th Infantry. With all bravery, the Filipino infantry positions were captured; about twenty-nine killed or wounded while six were taken prisoners and 30 rifles were gathered.

Mabalacat
After Col. Bell’s reconnaisance at Mabalacat on November 7, Gen. Wheeler’s main force entered the town on November 8, 1899 at 0900 hours after a road marfch aong te destroyed railroad between Angeles and Mabalacat. MacArthur’s main column had rested in Mabalacat for two days; securing supplies and reconnoitering fruther north and on both left and right sectors of the Paruao Line.

Magalang
Brigidier General Sevillano Aquino’s brigade has been tasked to take charge of the Magalang area since July 1899. By September 30, the Aquino Brigade was composed into four flying columns with 1,156 men with rifles and confined in the Magalang sector.. On October 17, Gen. Aquino’s forces had been fighting the Ameicans and was pushed out of the southern hlf of Magalang area. By November 2, the brigade was still holding the Maalang –Concepcion road against the 17th Infantry assault resulting in 12 killed and 24 wounded. In keeping the northward push, Col. Smith, with two battalions, a battery of artilley and a detachment of engineers were mobilized on Novembe 5 to crush the Fipino defenders at the Magalang-Concepcion road. According to American military report, the Filipino forces at Magalang under Gen. Aquino made a stand for the batlle to capture Magalang. His force consisted of about one thousand men and disperesed in the vicinity of San Jose, Pandakaki, and Magalang. Gen. Aquino made a valian sand for the battle of Magalang. However, perhaps due to the superiority in arms and supplies, he retreated into Concepcion with considerable loss.

PARUAO: THE LAST BATTLE
Gen. MacArthur’s advance into the Paruao Riverline, after captureing Sapang Bato, Magalang, and Mabalacat, seemed unstoppble but when, on November 8, the division was threatened by series of heavy rains which was unusual for that period of the year. These heavy rains turned normally fordable streams into raging torrents, wahsed away river anks and even the railroad tract.

The Capture of Bamban Bridge
Onether problem facing Gen. MacArthur’s military operations for the capture of Paruao River Line was that the Bamban railroad bridge over the Paruoa River had been destroyed by the Filipino forces. One span and its piers had been blown up; another piee was destroyed; and a third had fallen about two feet. It is apparent that companies belonging to San Miguel Brigade were posted on the bridge since September 1899. Luciano san Miguel’s defenders had run seven locomotives and seventeen cars nto the river. An eight endinge had run off trhe track and was lodged on the partially destroyed structure. Should the bridge be captured by the Americans, there were no sitable materials for repairs. And yet, MacArthru would not want to stop its forces from the on-going campaign to capture the river line just to give way for the repair of the bridge. Gen. MacArthur therefore planned to fery military materiel over the Paruao River.

On the 11th of November,the Paruao River subsided and fallen enough to be forded and MacArthur’s forces resumed respective attacks. Gen. Wheeler, in a brlizfrieg at the railroad; Col. Bell’s 36th Infantry to proceed into the Bamban Hills to the west, and Col. Smith’s 17th Infantry from the east via Concepcion and all the three commands will converge at Capas.

The Fall of River Line and the Capture of Bamban
On the right sector and railroad front, the San Miguel’s defenders were waiting for the American attack. Gen. Wheeler’s brigade started moving forward from Mabalacat with three (3) battalions of the 9th and 12th Infantry in advance. As the Filipinos had contrcuted a strong line of entrenchments on the north bank of the Paruao River, this limited Gen. Wheeler’s blitzkrieg advance. Worst, Gen. MacArthur advised him to demostrate only towards the trenches. However, as the heat of the battle at the Paruao River entered and his advance elements came under fire, Gen. Wheeler deployed his brigade and ordered to charge against Filipino fortifications. Seeing te situation, MacArthur sent a messenger director Wheeler to report tohim immediately. Wheeler went back to the firing line, and ordereed his entire line acroos the river. The brigade’s attack becme so disorganized in corsing the river and scattered as it followed the retreating Filipino soldiers through the town. The pursuit aganst Filipino troops went into the town for more than two miles. Soon, the brigade was finally mached back to Bamban to supervise the movement of supply lines whle remaining elements went to enter Capas.

The Battle of Bamban-Concepcion Road
On November 10, 1899, the American troops (Col. Smith’s 17th Infantry) numbering about 3,000 charged Gen. Aquino’s brigade at Magalang using heavy fire from rifles and cannons. Gen. Aquino’s forces were driven out of San Antonio, Magalang and regrouped at Concepcion. Remnants of Aquino’s brigdae was still a forece to reckon with; trying to close the American advance into Concpecion and turning the area of the Bamban-Concepcion road into a new battlegournd on November 10 and 11. Filipino army with a force of about 900 men armed wih rifles were spread on the Bamban-Concepcion road. Another contingent from Gen. Makabulos were mobilized with 300 or 400 men and Gen. Sevillano Aquino with about 1,200 to 1,250 rilfes. It can be deduced however that the American force to confron the massive Filipino positions on the said road belongs to Col. Smith’s 17th Infantry with some reinforcements from other units. The American troops numbering about 3,000 charged Gen. Aquino’s brigade using heavy fire from rifles and cannons.

The Mausers and Krags: The Fall of the Paruao
That 11th of November, Bamban, the Bamban-Concepcion Road, and at Concepcion defended by the brigades of Geneals San Miguel, Aquino, and Makabulos confronted the American’s Gen. Wheeler, Col. Bell, and Col. Smith in what became to be the last battle of the Philippine Repulic under Gen. Aguinaldo; whose seat of government was formerly at Tarlac. On this day, it was raining hard on the battlefields of the Paruao River Line where Filipinos and Americans fought and grappled in mud and flood of the monsoon. The Filipino defense on this line was something like 1, 600 equally mobilized between Bamban and Concpecion which is the area of old Banaba (San Pedro), Bical, Culabasa and Pacalcal. The famouse stronghold of the Paruao River Line collapsed on the 11th of November; paving the way for the fall and capture of Tarlac on November 12 (Aguinaldo’s former seat of government) by the American 36th Infantry under Col. Bell.

The three pronged attacks of Gen. Wheeler, Col. J.F. Bell, and Col. J. Smith into the last strongholld of the Republic under Generals San Miguel, Makabulos, and Aquino on what is known in American records as the “Tarlac Campaign” is such an intense battle. Casualty on the Filipno sides was high although, American casualty was quite silence. On the American side, the battle at Paruao Line produced two receiptins of the Medal of Honor given by President Theodore Roosevbelt:

GALT, STERLING A.: Artillery Officer, Company F, 36th Infantry, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At Bamban Luzon, Philippine Islands, 9 November 1899. Date of issue: 30 April 1902. Citation: Distinguished bravery and conspicuous gallantry in action against insurgents.
HUNTSMAN, JOHN A: Sergeant, Company E, 36th Infantry, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At Bamban, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 9 November 1899. Citation: For distinguished bravery and conspicuous gallantry in action against insurgents.
Generals Concepcion and Alejandrino (who was tasked to carry the remaining artiileries and cannons used in the battle of Paruao Line) moved west into the Zambales Mountinas via the Bamban Hills. General Luciano San Miguel also moved out and proceeded west to Zambales areas. Gen. Makabulos, from Tarlac town, moved further northward in the hills of Mayantoc while Gen. Aquino retreated ino Mt. Arayat. General Emilii Aguinaldo, now in Bayamabang, about 26 miles north of Tarlac, convened a council of war at Bayambang, Pangasinan and declared to engage guerilla warfare for the remaining units against the Americans. The battle along the Paruao River Line was the last engagement by the Filipino army under the Republic. From Kalookan where the first major battle of the Filipino-American war erupted, ended the campaign to capture the Repuboilc at Bamban.

“Taking into account the disadvantages they (Filipinos) have to fight against in arms, equipment, and military discipline, they are the bravest men I have ever seen.”

Major General Henry Lawton
American General in the Philippine Campaign 1899


Source:
THE PARUAO DEFENSE LINE 1899: THE LAST BATTLE OF THE REPUBLIC

By Rhonie C. Dela Cruz/ BHS JOURNAL NO. 5 August 14, 2004

BAMBAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY (BHS)
An Affiliate Organization of the National Historical Institute (NHI)
 Block 94, Lot 19, Lourdes-Dapdap Resettlement, Bamban, Tarlac2317 Philippines
 rhoniebhs@hotmail.com, bamban_society1@hotmail.com  0920-502-5077

2 comments:

  1. Ka Joel,

    Salamat naman rugu at ing metung karing sinulat ku, mipastil ya keting kekang blog. Dakal kupa gagawan para king amlat Bamban, makalkal at mabalu king kerakalan. At masaya kung i-ambag king kekatang memalen at karing gang taung pakamalan ing kabiasnan patungkul king balen Bamban. Ena malaut, ing kanakung libru tungkul balen Bamban at king lugar a makalapit, milual ne anti mong libru. Sana, dakal lapang kayanakan at tau ring mika interest king amlat ning balen; at ika, anti mong masanting a ehemplu, metung kang inspirasyun king kanakung gagawan.

    Dakal a salamat.

    Rhonie C. Dela Cruz
    Chairman
    Bamban Historical Society

    ReplyDelete
  2. Kaputul!
    metung a dengalan ing magsilbi para kng kagiwan ing kekatang balen!
    aldo mayaslag pu!

    -joel

    ReplyDelete